Subperiosteal dental implant procedure: choosing alternative

Subperiosteal implantation is another method of dental implant procedure, using special implant type. They are called subperiosteal. The implant is inserted above the bone and under the periosteum – a film of connective tissue, surrounding the bone on the outside. This procedure is not practically used today, but it is important to know about it in order to take a decision of the alternatives or to be psychologically prepared to this kind of dental treatment, if it is still necessary.

The use of subperiosteal implant is advisable if there is a small alveolar process, and osteoplastic procedure is impossible or there is no need and also in case of fully edentulous and the necessity of non-fixed denture. The basic design for this type of implantation is a metal frame that is fixed under the gum on the sides. These frames are made individually for each clinical case and require bone height of not less than 5 mm. Also the whole procedure takes a lot of time and it is performed under general anesthesia.

Thus, all the nuances and complexity of the surgery have led to the fact that the subperiosteal implantation – is rather thought-provoking information than a signal to action. Furthermore subperiosteal implant design needs double surgical procedure for its insertion. First periosteum is detached and the casts are taken and only then the periosteum is returned to its natural state. Subperiosteal implants have a titanium contour and mesh plates that rise above the gingival mucosa. A removable denture is attached to them. After manufacturing the implant on individual parameters, the periosteum is again prepared and the implant insertion above the bone is done. All these numerous excision of tissue can lead to infection and a prolonged healing, that is why today the data of computer tomography and 3D simulation is used to make subperiosteal implants without taking casts and to avoid the first stage of the surgery at all.

It may be said that it is one of the most difficult types of dental implantation, successful results of which are very dependent on the correctness of the injection moulding of titanium implant and the general state of the patient’s immune system. Subperiosteal implants are placed for a lifetime, because they are very resistant: do not come out and can not get loose, because they are like an additional contour of the jaw.

The contraindications for subperiosteal implantation include infectious, cardiovascular disease, cancer, age younger than 25 years, osteoporosis, pregnancy and lactation.

To avoid complications, it is important to trust the expert, follow the rules of oral hygiene and properly care for the implant in order to minimize the probability of rejection and infection.